7 Effects of Ketogenic Diet on “Weekend Warrior” Athletes

7 Effects of Ketogenic Diet on “Weekend Warrior” Athletes

It seems like 2017 is the year of the ketogenic diet. A new study examined the impacts of a 6-week ketogenic diet on body composition, health and fitness markers in healthy middle-aged men. So, if you’re active and want to take a glimpse into the effects of adopting a keto diet may have on your health and performance, here is your chance to take a sneak peek. Let’s review

Forty-two men in their late 30s were recruited for this 6-week study. They were fed a non-calorically restricted ketogenic diet – comprised of 70% fat, 20% protein and 10% carbs - and assessed for ketosis using urinary testing.

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3 Ways Gut Bacteria Can Harm Your Thyroid

3 Ways Gut Bacteria Can Harm Your Thyroid

Today, approximately 30 million people are struggling with a thyroid problem and many more are undiagnosed. Women are much more affected by thyroid problems, compared to men, with one out of eight impacted in their lifetime and the likelihood increases as you age. Alarmingly, while most cancer diagnoses are on the decline over the past decade, thyroid cancer rates have been increasing. The obvious question to ask is why are thyroid conditions becoming so commonplace? Like most chronic and degenerative conditions it's multi-factorial, and one key factor affecting your thyroid health is your gut bacteria, also known as the microbiome.

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Can You Bank Sleep? (To Improve Future Performance)

Can You Bank Sleep? (To Improve Future Performance)

Today, we just don’t enough sleep. Our modern high-tech society seems to be wreaking havoc on our sleep time (and quality), and ultimately health and performance. The average America adult gets only six and a half hours of sleep per night and alarmingly 33% of the population gets less than 6 hours of sleep per night. One of the most common question I get from clients to offset their sleep debt is “can I just sleep more on the weekends?” It’s an interesting question, but unfortunately the current research suggests no… you need to be consistent with your sleep to reap the health and performance benefits.

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HIIT Sprints & Adults Over-50: The Minimum-Effective Dose

HIIT Sprints & Adults Over-50: The Minimum-Effective Dose

As you get older, it’s more difficult to maintain lean muscle mass. Muscle is not only a crucial factor in physical performance but also a key marker of healthy ageing.(1) After the age of 50 muscular power starts to decline, more rapidly than strength qualities, making it an important factor to focus on during training. Power isn’t just for dynamic sports efforts, your fast-twitch muscles are essential for “catching yourself” as you fall and hip fractures are significant risk factor in older populations. The good news is maintaining muscular power predicts a reduction in future falls, so not only is focusing on power qualities during exercise important for performance, but overall health as well.

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Top-6 Calorie Dense Foods (And How to Avoid Them)

Top-6 Calorie Dense Foods (And How to Avoid Them)

There is a growing debate in the nutrition community about the cause of obesity; too much sugar or too much fat? While the debate rages online, the research experts are actually in agreement… it’s both! Consuming an excess of calories leads to weight gain, while a caloric deficit leads to weight loss. (There is also the “endocrine theory” for weight loss, but I’ll address that in future post). It sounds straight-forward in theory, however in practice it can be tremendously challenging to implement.

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3 Ways Camping Can Reboot Your Circadian Rhythms

3 Ways Camping Can Reboot Your Circadian Rhythms

Sleep problems seem to be the “new normal” these days. Most of the clients I see in clinical practice complain of difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep regularly throughout the week. Sleep quality isn’t the only problem. The average person gets a mere 6.5 hours of sleep per night (a far cry from the 8 hours our grandparents slept two generations ago) and over 33% of the population get less than 6 hours per night. New research shows lack of sleep is also a major factor contributing to blood sugar, insulin imbalances and chronic disease (not to mention poor athletic performance), so rebooting your sleep and recovery are critical. It seems late nights watching iPads, working on your laptop, or scrolling social media is dramatically changing our modern sleep patterns.

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5 Anti-Aging Benefits of Coffee

5 Anti-Aging Benefits of Coffee

Coffee is by far the most popular beverage on the planet (aside from water). The caffeine in your morning cup of Joe – also found in tea, chocolate, etc. – is also the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. There have been a lot of recent debate over the benefits and drawbacks of coffee (and caffeine) consumption, and with a lot of new research coming out, I thought I would take the time to highlight some of the findings. The following is a quick review of five ways coffee can extend your life.

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6 Winter Foods That Boost Your Health

 6 Winter Foods That Boost Your Health

This time of year, it seems like every time you turn on the TV or open up Facebook, someone is talking about tips and tricks for staying healthy during the winter months. And while being a stickler about hand washing, disinfecting your workspace, and getting plenty of rest is excellent advice for avoiding seasonal colds, one area you cannot—I repeat, cannot—neglect is your diet.

If a strong, high-functioning immune system is your goal, then consuming quality, nutrient-dense foods needs to be a keystone in your game plan.

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Rhodiola & Athletic Performance: The Complete Guide

Rhodiola & Athletic Performance: The Complete Guide

Rhodiola rosea, referred to as the Arctic or Golden root, has been used by a variety of ancestral cultures for millennia to support energy and vitality. It grows at high altitudes, on mountain tops and sea cliffs in Europe and Asia and is classified as an adaptagen – a substance that supports the body during times of stress. In the 8th century, it’s believed rhodiola was used by the Vikings to fight off fatigue and increase stamina, by indigenous Sherpa’s in the Himalayas to adapt to living at high altitude and a “secret” of Soviet-era military used to ramp up resiliency during extended time on the combat field.

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What Is The Minimum-Effective Dose For Hypertrophy?

What Is The Minimum-Effective Dose For Hypertrophy?

When you’re young or have lots of time on your hands, it’s easy to carve out 5-10 hours a week to hit the gym. Getting all your lifts in when you train 5-6 days per week makes achieving your hypertrophy goals quite straight forward. However, as you get older or your time becomes more limited, or if you’re simply looking for the most efficient hypertrophy program possible, the real question is… “how little time can you spend in the gym and still maximize your gains?”

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Yucca Root - 7 Reasons To Include In Your Nutritional Arsenal

Yucca Root - 7 Reasons To Include In Your Nutritional Arsenal

Yucca root, commonly known as cassava, is native to north, central and south america and a dietary staple in Americas and Caribbean. This gluten-free root vegetable is able to survive the winter months or dry months and regrown due to the nutrients stored in its tuberous stem, similar to potatoes and yams. Yucca is an absolute nutritional powerhouse and should be a dietary staple for all athletes and active people (with the exception of those following a ketogenic diet). The following are seven great reasons to include yucca in your nutrition arsenal.

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Top-3 Mineral Deficiencies On A Ketogenic Diet (And How To Fix It)

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A common question I get asked after clients start a ketogenic diet is “why do I feel lousy?” Like them, you’re probably thinking going keto will provide an immediate mental and physical boost. For some, it will. For others, you may experience adverse symptoms, also known as the “keto flu”. When you start a very low-carb ketogenic diet, you’ll flush water and sodium out of your body in the first few weeks. As your sodium levels fall, so too will potassium levels. This can leave you feeling tired, sluggish, and wondering what you got yourself into. Fear not, it’s only temporary. Here are some suggestions for avoiding key mineral deficiencies when jumping into a ketogenic diet. 

Sodium

One of the biggest health and nutrition “myths” is that you should avoid salt. If you’re fit, healthy, and following a keto diet you’ll lose water and sodium in the first few weeks. For athletes, this problem can be compounded because you also lose sodium through your sweat, and as your sweat rate increases, your sodium and blood volume will decline. Not a good recipe for optimal energy and performance.

On the flip side, if you’re overweight, out of shape or in poor health then your body is likely already holding on to too much sodium from high consumption of packaged and processed foods (i.e. sodium is used as the primary preservative) or from chronically elevated insulin levels. Therefore, a low-carb or keto approach is great way to restore healthy levels.

Symptoms of low sodium include fatigue, headaches, compromised ability to perform (especially outdoors in the heat) and in more serious cases you may pass out. Remember that most of the sodium in your body is found in your bloodstream, so if your body gets deficient, you don’t have many reserves to tap into.

In the first few weeks on a keto diet, only about half of your weight loss is from body-fat. The other half is from water and sodium loss. Therefore, getting enough sodium is crucial.

Aim for an extra 1,000-2,000mg of sodium daily via:

  • Pink Himalayan or Celtic Sea salt (not standard table salt)

  • Broth or bouillon (1-2 cups per day)

  • Shellfish (i.e. oysters, mussels, crab, etc.)

Athletes should aim to take one gram 30 minutes before workouts to offset adverse effects of low sodium on performance.

Potassium

When you lose sodium on a keto diet, the salt depletion causes a parallel loss of potassium. Common symptoms of a potassium deficiency - the medical term is hypokalemia - include weakness, muscular cramps, constipation, irritability or skin problems. In athletes, low potassium can compromise lean muscle mass which will ultimately impact performance, and in more severe cases, you may experience heart palpitations, irregular heartbeats, respiratory distress (and even heart failure with serious deficiency). 

Virtually all fruits and veggies contain significant amounts of potassium, but not all are keto friendly. In fact, most people don’t realize that animal protein is terrific source of dietary potassium, however the cooking process strips a great deal of it away (but the leftover juices from cooking can be used to keep your levels up).  

Here is a list of my potassium rich keto-friendly foods:

  • Spinach (2 cups) – 330mg

  • Chicken breast - 330mg

  • Salmon (3 oz) - 326mg

  • Beef (3 oz) - 315mg

  • Avocado (1/2 medium) - 320mg

  • Broccoli (1/2 cup) - 230mg

  • Asparagus (1/2 cup) – 202mg

Magnesium

Do you ever suffer from muscle cramps? Lack of magnesium is likely the culprit. Magnesium is the body’s “calming” mineral; helping to keep your brain, heart and muscles relaxed. It’s also essential for protein synthesis, blood sugar control, energy metabolism and over 300 other biochemical reactions in the body. Intense exercise, lack of sleep, and stress can all deplete magnesium levels.

Animal protein is also a great source of magnesium – in particular shellfish like oysters and mussels – along with leafy greens. Veggies get their deep green colour from chlorophyll, and the core of the chlorophyll molecule is magnesium, so make sure to always eat your leafy greens at mealtime. The darker the leafy green, the more magnesium.

Include the following regularly:

  • Spinach (1 cup cooked) – 157mg

  • Swiss Chard (1 cup cooked) – 154mg

  • Pumpkin Seeds (1/8 cup) – 90mg

  • Oysters (3 oz.) – 80mg

  • Yogurt (Plain) – 50mg

  • Avocado (1/2 medium)– 30mg

The Bottom Line: If you’re starting up (or already following) a keto diet, it’s important to make sure you keep your electrolytes in balance; boost sodium levels by adding Sea salt to meals and a bone broth drink, and keep potassium and magnesium levels up via nuts and seeds, dark leafy greens, fish and shellfish.

If you follow this approach, you can significantly reduce – and even prevent – many of the adverse symptoms associated with starting up a ketogenic diet. Try these simple tips to help you thrive with your keto diet this year.

Dr. Marc Bubbs ND, CISSN, CSCS

 

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Want to learn more about keto? Listen to Dr. Ryan Lowery PhD talk all things ketogenic diet in Episode #33 of the Dr. Bubbs Performance Podcast... 

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What To Do If You Have Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)?

What To Do If You Have Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)?

It’s that time of year again. The darkest and shortest days of the year don’t just bring about cold weather; they can also bring about significant changes in your mood and how you feel. 

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a real thing that affects over 10 million Americans, with another 10-20 million said to struggle with mild symptoms.

If you live in a city with a true winter climate – like New York, Toronto, or London – you’re up to 10 times more likely to struggle with mild to moderate SAD. Also, adolescents and young adults are more likely to be affected.

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Post-Training Protein – How Much Is The Right Amount?

Post-Training Protein – How Much Is The Right Amount?

Protein intake around exercise is always a hot topic around the gym water-cooler. Is it better pre-workout? Post-workout? Intra-workout? The options seem endless. It’s well recognized from previous research that the minimum amount of protein required to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is 20g post-training and that increasing to 40g post-training had no impact on muscle gains after exercise. That said, if you can get some marginal gains from ramping up your protein post-training, why not? A new study attempts to uncover if ratcheting up your intake to 40g post-training is really worth the effort and if bigger athlete require more protein post-training.

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Coffee vs. Caffeine (Supplements) - Impacts On Training Performance

Coffee vs. Caffeine (Supplements) - Impacts On Training Performance

To optimize performance gains, the conventional wisdom has always been that caffeine supplements are superior to coffee. That’s one of the reasons why pre-workout supplements are so popular, and for most people, highly effective for improving exercise performance. But, in the last few years there has been some interesting research coming out demonstrating that coffee can perform just as well as caffeine supplements when it comes to exercise. Thus, the narrative shifted to coffee is just as good as caffeine or pre-workout supplements. Until now.

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How To Get Started On a Ketogenic Diet

How To Get Started On a Ketogenic Diet

Low-carb and Paleo nutrition approaches share many similar traits to a ketogenic diet. In fact, with only a few modification to your low-carb diet make it possible to achieve the best of both worlds. (Warning... If you're on a high carb diet, it will be a dramatic and often difficult transition. Try low-carb first for 8-12 weeks, then you'll be ready to take the plunge into a ketogenic diet).

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Strength vs. Size - How Many Reps Are Really Best?

Strength vs. Size - How Many Reps Are Really Best?

Just the other day, a client named Tim came into my office because he was struggling to add lean muscle. He was eating right and training at a CrossFit box 4-5x per week (and getting stronger), but couldn’t seem to pack on the 10 pounds of lean muscle he was looking for. He was stumped. This is a classic case of really having clarity in your goals. Are training to get stronger so that you can perform better in your sport? Or is your primary goal to get bigger and add size to your frame? 

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Vitamin D & Endurance Sport Performance

Vitamin D & Endurance Sport Performance

Vitamin D has been gaining significant momentum recently in the research for its ability to influence over 1,000 different genes in the body and subsequently some important performance parameters. Failing to get sufficient vitamin D regularly can negatively impact many endurance parameters, including maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), susceptibility to colds and flu, inflammation, recovery, and stress fractures.

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3-Minute vs. 1-Minute Rest Periods (What’s Best for Strength and Size?)

Tell me is this scenario sounds familiar. You’ve been training in the gym for a while, you made some nice gains and now your progress has stalled. You’re doing all the compound lifts – squats, deadlifts, bench press, chins, etc. – but you just can’t seem to get any stronger, or any bigger.

The answer might not be your exercise selection or rep scheme, but something a lot simpler that you may have overlooked… rest periods.

A new study investigated the effects of long rest periods (i.e. 3-minutes) versus short (i.e. 1-minue) during resistance training. Twenty-one young men who were regular lifters trained three times per week, 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions for seven exercises per session, over the course of 8 weeks. The researchers tested muscular strength, endurance, and thickness before and after the study. The results were eye opening.

The group that rested the had to take “long” rest periods had significantly greater gains in muscular strength (i.e. 1-RM squat and bench press), as well as significantly greater muscle thickness in the legs (and a trend for upper body improvements).(1) It may not surprise many trainers that taking longer rest periods helps with your maximal strength performance, but the fact that it can also increase muscle thickness makes it a great “rest” strategy for athletes or anyone trying to add more lean muscle and size to their frame.

A lot of lifters can get caught up in the burn and build-up of lactic acid as a measure of training success, and therefore shy away from longer rest periods.  This study suggests the longer rest periods you take, the greater loads you can lift, which then translates into greater hypertrophy gains.

How can you make this practical during your training session (so it doesn’t take you 2 hours to train every session)? Your best bet is to superset opposing body parts, or upper and lower body, to maximize your time. For example, you could alternate chest and back exercises, or alternate between a compound leg exercise and upper body push or pull movement.

You might be wondering if your work capacity will be impaired by the longer rest periods? Great question and one the researchers investigated. They found muscular endurance was equal between the two groups, so taking 3-minute rest periods didn’t reduce the work capacity of the lifters compared to their 1-minute counterparts. This goes against a lot of popular thinking, as a 1-minute rest interval has to be the most common prescribed in gyms across the country.

If you’re struggling to get bigger or stronger (or both), and feel like you’re doing all the right things in the gym, the answer overcoming your plateau may be simpler than you think. This groundbreaking new research suggests adding 3-minute rest periods to your compound lifts to ramp up strength and hypertrophy gains. (Just think of how much down time you’ll have for mobility work!)

Happy training.

Dr. Marc Bubbs ND, CISSN, CSCS

 

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21 Foods To Boost Your Immunity

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The darker, shorter and colder days of winter are upon us and with it comes an increase in colds and flu. The first wave of patients with sore throats and congestion has already passed through my office, so now is a great time to think about how you can support your immune system. There are several key deficiencies that commonly rear their ugly heads over the fall and winter months and contribute to increased frequency and severity of colds and flu. Nothing will slow your productivity at work, in the gym, or family time at home quicker than sick days.

If you are working long hours, exercising intensely, or have kids in daycare or school, then you’ll likely be more exposed to bacteria and viruses that can leave you stuck at home in bed. The research tells us that as your cortisol stress levels increase (from busy days, meeting deadlines, or getting up early with the kids) your first-line of immune defense or innate immune system function decreases.1This leaves your immune defense team short-handed.

Staying active is a great way to enhance your immunity but the more intensely you train (or the greater your training load), the quicker you deplete critical ‘immune soldiers’ called natural killer cells (NK).2 Studies show your immune system can be depressed for 24-72 hours after intense training, which means you need to provide the right support to reduce your risk of colds and flu.3

What can you do to boost your immunity this winter? (The answer is on your dinner plate!)

VITAMIN D

If you live in a northern climate with a true fall and winter season, obtaining the right amount of vitamin D is critical for keeping your immune system firing on all cylinders. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with decreased innate immunity and increased risk for infections.4

The best part of a Food First approach to your nutrition strategy is that it provides you with nutrient-dense food choices. To keep your vitamin D levels from plummeting over the winter months, increase your intake with these five vitamin D containing foods:

  • Cod Liver Oil – 1,400 IU per tbsp. (your grandma knew best!)
  • Cold-Water Fatty Fish – trout (645 IU per 3 ounce), salmon, or mackerel
  • Medicinal Mushrooms – Portobello (375 IU per mushroom) or maitake
  • Pork – 78 IU per 3 oz. serving
  • Eggs – 44IU per egg

The Vitamin D Society recommends maintaining your vitamin D levels between 100-150 (nmol/l), so if you struggle with colds and flu, or low mood over the winter, then getting your levels tested would be beneficial.5

VITAMIN A

If you are low in Vitamin A, it will significantly impair your mucosal immunity and leave you more prone to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI).6 If you work in an office, have kids in daycare or school, or train intensely than you’ll be a much greater risk of URTI, especially through the winter months.

Traditiona diets around the world are loaded with nutrient dense meats that are the richest source of preformed vitamin A. You can also get significant beta-caretene (which converts to vitamin A) from fruits and veggies.

Try these five foods rich vitamin A foods to keep your immune system robust:

  • Turkey and Beef Liver – 17,000 IU and 6,400 IU per 2.6 oz., respectively.
  • Cod Liver Oil – 4,150 IU per tbsp.
  • Sweet potatoes – 1,100 IU per medium size
  • Pumpkin -1,000 IU per ½ cup
  • Carrots – 700 IU per ½ cup

VITAMIN C & ZINC

Vitamin C and zinc is a powerful combo for ramping up your immune army and fighting off bacteria and viruses. Vitamin C improves the response of neutrophils and lymphocytes, important immune cells that are the ‘front-line soldiers’ of your innate immune system.7,8 Zinc is essential for optimal function of your thymus gland, responsible for developing the ‘special forces’ immune cells of your adaptive immune system.9 This is the seek and destroy arm of your immunity, crucial for knocking out foreign invaders once they’ve breached your first-line of defense.

A nutrition strategy rich in animal protein is the best dietary source of zinc, while a mix of fruit and veggies are key for boosting your vitamin C intake (some sources may surprise you!). To ensure you’re meeting your body’s increased demands throughout the fall/winter months, be sure to include the following foods:

Vitamin C

  • Yellow Bell Peppers – 345mg per large pepper
  • Broccoli – 92mg per cup (chopped)
  • Kale – 80mg per cup (chopped)
  • Orange – 70mg per fruit (medium)
  • Kiwis – 64mg per fruit

Zinc

  • Oysters – 33mg per 6 oysters
  • Beef – 14mg per fillet (4.5oz.)
  • Lamb – 7mg per 3oz.
  • Pork – 4.3mg per 3oz.
  • Ginger 

ADD A PROBIOTIC

There is inherent ‘cross-talk’ between your gut and immune system, therefore ensuring the right balance of healthy microbiota in your intestinal tract will go a long way to fighting off colds and flus.10,11 Common fermented foods and Paleo staples like kombucha tea, sauerkraut, and kimchi, are great options for increasing ‘good’ gut bacteria. In addition, the polyphenols found in green tea also promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. If you struggle with frequent or persistent colds or flu, you may want to add a probiotic supplement to add further immune support.

Limiting the growth of ‘bad’ or dysbiotic gut bacteria is crucial to maintaining optimal intestinal microflora and therefore immunity. Short-chain saturated fats like butyric acid and lauric acid, found in butter and coconut oil, exert potent antmicrobial effects that help to keep bad bacteria in check.12,13

Don’t let the cold, dark months slow you down. Enhance your diet by incorporating the foods richest in the key immune boosting nutrients – vitamin D, A, C, zinc, and probiotics – to increase your resiliency this cold and flu season.

Enjoy a healthy winter!

Dr. Marc Bubbs ND, CISSN, CSCS

 

Check out the rest of our articles in the IMMUNITY SERIES...

REFERENCES

[1]Nieman DC et al. Influence of carbohydrate on the immune response to intensive, prolonged exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev 1998;4:64-76.

[2] Nieman DC, Pedersen BK. Exercise and immune function. Recent developments. Sports Med 1999;27(2):73-80.

[3] Walsh PH et al. Position statement. Part one: Immune function & exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev.2011;17:6-63.

[4] Youssef D et al. Vitamin D’s potential to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Apr 1;4(2):167-75

[5] Heaney R, Bggerly C, Sorenson M, Vieth R. Toronto Vitamin D Disease Prevention Symposium. November 6th, 2013. Toronto, ON

[6] Semba RD. The role of vitamin A and related retinoids in immune function. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(1 Pt 2):S38-48

[7] Douglas RM et al. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. 2004 Oct 18;(4):CD000980.

[8] Peters EM, Goetzche JM, Grobbelaar B, Noakes TD. Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of post race symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract infection in ultra marathon runners. Am J Clin Nutr 1993 Feb;57(2):170-4.

[9] Mangini S et al. A combination of high-dose vitamin C plus zinc for the common cold. J Int Med Res. 2012;40(1):28-42.

[10] Rask C et al. Differential effect on cell-mediated immunity in human volunteers after intake of different lactobacilli. Clin Exp Immunol 2013 May;172(2):321-32.

[11] Madden J.A.J. et al. Effect of probiotics on preventing disruption of the intestinal microflora following antibiotic therapy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Int Immunophar 2005: 5: 1091-1097.

[12] Mortesen FV, Nielsen H, Aalkjaer C, et al. Short chain fatty acids relax isolated resistance arteries from the human ileum by a mechanism dependent on anion-exchange. Pharmacol Toxicoli 1994;75(3-4):181-5. 6.

[13] Mortesen FV, Nielsen H, Mulvaney MJ, et al. Short chain fatty acids dilate isolated human colonic reistance arteries. Gut 1990;31(12):1391-4.